If you apply for a visitor visa, study permit, work permit or permanent resident visa you will need to give your fingerprints and photo (biometrics). Per December 31, 2018, this applies for all countries. If you plan to visit Canada and are from a visa exempt country you do not need to give your biometrics. If you are eligible to apply from within Canada you currently do not have to give your biometrics until IRCC opens collection centres in Canada in 2019.
Biometrics are collected at Visa Application Centers (VAC). If there’s no biometric service available where you live, you’ll have to find the location closest to you.
Certain applicants can apply for a study permit or work permit at a Port of Entry (POE). If you are eligible to apply at a POE you can give your biometrics at the POE.
In the United States, you can give your biometrics at Application Support Centers.